Language-in-education policies in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are possibly the most interesting and best model for the world to follow. Both phenomena greatly increase the possibility of chance resemblances, especially when they are not confirmed by lexical similarities. Church near Lorengau, Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. Many of these languages are spoken only by a very small number of … English is the first. How many languages do they speak in Papua New Guinea? The official languages of Papua New Guinea are Tok Pisin, English and Hiri Motu. There is over 850 languages in Papua New Guinea! However, more recently Foley has accepted the broad outline if not the details of Wurm's classification, as he and Ross have substantiated a large portion of Wurm's Trans–New Guinea phylum. Sort out the facts about islands across the globe. Tiny Papua New Guinea is all of 462,840 square kilometres in size, about as big as the state of California. Very few linguists accept his grouping. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1. Tok Pisin, a creole, is the second; Hiri Motu, a simplified version of … Hiri Motu is a simplified trading language originally used by the people who lived around what is now Port Moresby when it came under that name in 1884. With a share of around 78%, it is most widespread in Papua New Guinea. Speakers were allowed to use their own languages. One fifth of all the world's languages are to be The coherence of the South Bird's Head, East Bird's Head, Pauwasi, Kwomtari, and Central Solomons families are uncertain, and hence are marked below as "tentative. English is the main language of government and commerce. It is distinct from the Trans–New Guinea phylum of the classifications below. Ross has proposed 23 Papuan language families and 9–13 isolates. As of 2020, the following families are identified:[19]. Sweet potato farming, south-central Highlands, Papua New Guinea. 2. Also, he shows that the two cases of alleged pronoun borrowing in New Guinea are simple coincidence, explainable as regular developments from the protolanguages of the families in question: as earlier forms of the languages are reconstructed, their pronouns become less similar, not more. Austronesian speakers generally inhabit the coastal regions and offshore islands, including the Trobriands and Buka. The English language has e… Factbook > Countries > Papua New Guinea > Demographics Languages: Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 839 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); many languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers do not address the more tentative families that Usher proposes, such as Northwest New Guinea. and since Wurm's time another isolate and two languages belonging to a new family have been discovered. The majority of Papua New Guinea’s people are at least nominally Christian. Similarly, several groups that do have substantial basic vocabulary in common with Trans–New Guinea languages are excluded from the phylum because they do not resemble it grammatically. Joseph Greenberg proposed that the Andamanese languages (or at least the Great Andamanese languages) off the coast of Burma are related to the Papuan or West Papuan languages. Greenberg also suggested a connection to the Tasmanian languages. (you alright) I’m fine - mi orait tasolHow much is that? Unemployment and underemployment have exacerbated the problems of poverty, crime, and ethnic tensions, especially in urban areas. Introduction. - Yu whosait?My name is (Joe) - Nem bilong mi (Joe)Thank you very much - tenk yu tru(e)No thank you - sori nogutHow are you? (2013)[11] found lexical similarities among the following language groups. The island of Karkar and the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain are centres of particularly dense population. The Papuan Languages of New Guinea Extinct Tambora and the East Papuan languages have not been addressed, except to identify Yele as an Austronesian language. These include Western Dani (180,000 in 1993) and Ekari (100,000 reported 1985) in the western (Indonesian) highlands, and Enga (230,000 in 2000), Huli (150,000 reported 2011), and Melpa (130,000 reported 1991) in the eastern (PNG) highlands. However, Dixon later abandoned his proto-Australian proposal,[21] and Foley's ideas need to be re-evaluated in light of recent research. Amid such a multiplicity of tongues, Tok Pisin serves as an effective lingua franca. Unlock this profile with an Essentials plan.. See the details on every language spoken in Papua New Guinea, plus: Profiles for every other country in the world; 7,464 profiles covering every language … Despite its small size, it is the most linguistically diverse country on the planet. It has been suggested that the families that appear when comparing pronouns may be due to pronoun borrowing rather than to genealogical relatedness. The Highlands valleys are densely settled, whether in villages or scattered hamlets. Approximately another one-fifth are Roman Catholics. 851 indigenous languages are spoken in the country. Several languages of Flores, Sumba, and other islands of eastern Indonesia are classified as Austronesian but have large numbers of non-Austronesian words in their basic vocabulary and non-Austronesian grammatical features. • TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea (by Simon Greenhill) The Lingua Franca in this country is Pidgin( tok-Pisin) which contains many words from different languages, especially English and German, the languages of the colonial powers that reigned in this part of the world. There are at least 7,102 known languages still spoken in the world today. Papuan speakers, who constitute the great majority of the population, live mainly in the interior. After 1975 smallholders increasingly took over the bulk of export crop production, replacing foreign-owned plantations. Although pronouns are conservative elements in a language, they are both short and utilise a reduced set of the language's phonemic inventory. Those thinly populated areas in turn give way to sago swamps along the courses of the great Ramu and Sepik rivers. Common Phrases What is your name? [2] Since perhaps only a quarter of Papuan languages have been studied in detail, linguists' understanding of the relationships between them will continue to be revised. Despite the official languages, the other languages were not nullified. Most of the government communications and publications are often made in English. More than two-fifths of the population is Protestant; Lutherans make up the largest portion of those, and there are some Anglicans and a growing number of Pentecostals. It is a multilingual nation with over 840 languages spoken, with twelve of them lacking many speakers. At times logs have accounted for one-tenth of the value of national exports, but that proportion fell by about half during the Asian economic crisis of the late 1990s and only recovered slowly in the first decade of the 21st century. The poor state of documentation of Papuan languages restricts this approach largely to pronouns. It is based on very preliminary work, much of it typological, and Wurm himself has stated that he doesn't expect it to hold up well to scrutiny. In the colonial era copra was the premier crop in lowland areas, but now only small amounts are produced, together with some rubber in the southern region. All other Papuan languages are right-headed. [5], Two of Wurm's isolates have since been linked as the. However, the nation is considered as the most linguistically diverse country in the … Foley (1986) divides Papuan languages into over sixty small language families, plus a number of isolates. In 2006, the Prime Minister of the country declared that there are 832 living languages in Papua New Guinea. Other linguists, including William A. Foley, have suggested that many of Wurm's phyla are based on areal features and structural similarities, and accept only the lowest levels of his classification, most of which he inherited from prior taxonomies. The last 48 hours here in PNG have been nothing short of incredible. They are Tok Pisin, English, Hiri Motu, and Papua New Guinean Sign Language. The Reef Islands – Santa Cruz languages of Wurm's East Papuan phylum were a potential 24th family, but subsequent work has shown them to be highly divergent Austronesian languages as well. It has more than twice the number of languages spoken across Europe. Despite the apparent inroads made by introduced religions, much of the population also maintains traditional religious beliefs, and rituals of magic, spells, and sorcery are still widely practiced. Papua New Guinea. Trans-New Guinea languages and Austrone-sian languages spoken in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea.1) Though Trans-New Guinea languages and Austronesian languages are grammatically and lexically different from each other (Foley 2000), this study tries to find common aspectual features by contrasting these sample languages (Lynch 1998: 62-64, It has been suggested that these may have originally been non-Austronesian languages that have borrowed nearly all of their vocabulary from neighboring Austronesian languages, but no connection with the Papuan languages of Timor has been found. Almost all commercial crops are exported, although the domestic vegetable market is growing rapidly. Papua New Guinea is known for its biodiversity, cultures, and languages. But some of them don’t have native speakers anymore while others are quickly losing speakers. (See Trans–New Guinea languages.) These were formerly also the staple foods for Highlanders, who now mostly rely on sweet potatoes known as kau kau. The official language is English, which is widely used in business and government circles. The approximately 550 non-Austronesian languages have small speech communities, the largest being the Engan, Melpa, and Kuman speakers in the Highlands, each with more than 100,000 speakers. In general, the Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages are marked by a significant historical Papuan influence, lexically, grammatically, and phonologically, and this is responsible for much of the diversity of the Austronesian language family. However, the Tasmanian peoples were isolated for perhaps 10,000 years, genocide wiped out their languages before much was recorded of them, and few linguists expect that they will ever be linked to another language family. Despite only having four official languages, Papua New Guinea has an astonishing 832 native languages spoken within its borders. Statistical analyses designed to pick up signals too faint to be detected by the comparative method, though of disputed validity, suggest five major Papuan stocks (roughly Trans–New Guinea, West, North, East, and South Papuan languages);[3] long-range comparison has also suggested connections between selected languages, but again the methodology is not orthodox in historical linguistics. "[13][14][15][16], Papuan independent language families (43 families), Papuan isolates and unclassified languages (37 total), Glottolog 4.0 (2019), based partly on Usher, recognizes 70 independent families and 55 isolates. [4], The Great Andamanese languages may be related to some western Papuan languages, but are not themselves covered by the term Papuan.[2]. - Wanem nem bilong yu?Who are you? [17], Timothy Usher and Edgar Suter, with the advice of Papuan researchers such as William Croft, Matthew Dryer, John Lynch, Andrew Pawley, and Malcolm Ross,[18] have reconstructed low-level constituents of Papuan language families to verify which purported members truly belong to them. In most everyday contexts the most widely spoken language is Tok Pisin (“Pidgin Language”; also called Melanesian Pidgin or Neo-Melanesian), a creole combining grammatical elements of indigenous languages, some German, and, increasingly, English. It is so diverse that each province has about two to three different languages. The various high-level families may represent distinct migrations into New Guinea, presumably from the west. Rapid population growth has created difficulties in providing basic health and education services. Papua New Guinea has 839 languages -- the highest number of languages spoken as a first language in a single country. English is mainly spoken by migrants and expatriates working in the country. Papua New Guinea is by far the largest and the most populated country in the Pacific. One Papuan language, Meriam, is spoken within the national borders of Australia, in the eastern Torres Strait. Languages reassigned to the Austronesian family: Søren Wichmann (2013) accepts the following 109 groups as coherent Papuan families, based on computational analyses performed by the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP) combined with Harald Hammarström's (2012) classification. Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country, with over 820 indigenous languages, representing 12% of the world's total, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. The westernmost language, Tambora in Sumbawa, is extinct. READ PAPER. However, there are also many Austronesian languages that are grammatically similar to Trans–New Guinea languages due to the influence of contact and bilingualism. Despite the greatly diminished importance of plantations and the relocation of most of the airstrips out of the towns, those origins helped determine the existing urban layout. It was once a British colony, but became independent n 1975. In the archipelagoes of the north and northeast, yams, taro, and bananas are grown as staple foods. The major exception has been the cultivation of oil palm in West New Britain (on previously little-used volcanic soils) and on the eastern mainland, boosted by foreign investment. Wurm believed the Papuan languages arrived in several waves of migration with some of the earlier languages (perhaps including the Sepik–Ramu languages) being related to the Australian languages,[5][6] a later migration bringing the West Papuan, Torricelli and the East Papuan languages[5] and a third wave bringing the most recent pre-Austronesian migration, the Trans–New Guinea family. In addition, poorly attested Karami remains unclassified. However, it is spoken by about 100,000 people or 1-2% of the population. English was introduced into the country as part of the Indo-European language by the Australians who colonized it for some time. Forestry was a controversial industry, with logging companies developing connections with the political elite, and it was marked by corrupt practices including improperly issued licenses, mislabeled species, transfer pricing manipulation (the practice of hiding the real value of transactions—e.g., by undervaluing exports—in order to maximize profits), tax avoidance, environmental damage, and lack of reforestation. Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages, East Cenderawasih (Geelvink Bay) languages, languages of the East New Guinea Highlands, "Explaining the Linguistic Diversity of Sahul Using Population Models", Distant Language Relationship: The Current Perspective, ASJP World Language Trees of Lexical Similarity: Version 4 (October 2013), Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea, 2003 bibliography of languages (Papuan and Austronesian) of Indonesian Papua, Summer Institute of Linguistics site on languages (Papuan and Austronesian) of Papua New Guinea, Map of Papuan languages (formerly known as the East Papuan family) of island Melanesia, Dryer's Papuan Language Families and Genera, Endangered Languages of the Pacific Region, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Papuan_languages&oldid=998544225, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, There is a cluster of languages in West Papua between the upper, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 21:41. [1] It is a strictly geographical grouping, and does not imply a genetic relationship. Papua New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse country in the world with over 850 living languages, and amazingly, the nation accounts for almost an eighth of the world's total languages. However, he considered this not evidence of a connection between (Great) Andamanese and Trans–New Guinea, but of a substratum from an earlier migration to New Guinea from the west. William A. Foley (1986) noted lexical similarities between R. M. W. Dixon's 1980 reconstruction of proto-Australian and the languages of the East New Guinea Highlands. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. There are some 200 related Austronesian languages. However, because of his more stringent criteria, he was not able to find enough data to classify all Papuan languages, especially many isolates that have no close relatives to aid in their classification. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has about 800 + languages that i think make up 25% of the worlds languages. The concept of Papuan peoples as distinct from Austronesian-speaking Melanesians was first suggested and named by Sidney Herbert Ray in 1892. There are a lot of languages spoken here because of the cultural diversity. According to Ross (see below), the main problem with Wurm's classification is that he did not take contact-induced change into account. Note that while this classification may be more reliable than past attempts, it is based on a single parameter, pronouns, and therefore must remain tentative. New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse region in the world. (Ross argues that open-class pronoun systems, where borrowings are common, are found in hierarchical cultures such as those of Southeast Asia and Japan, where pronouns indicate details of relationship and social status rather than simply being grammatical pro-forms as they are in the more egalitarian New Guinea societies.). Joseph Greenberg proposed an Indo-Pacific phylum containing the (Northern) Andamanese languages, all Papuan languages, and the Tasmanian languages, but not the Australian Aboriginal languages. Papuan languages speaking countries Papuan languages is no official language in any country, but is spoken as mother tongue in 2 countries by a minor part of the population. The approximately 550 non-Austronesian languages have small speech communities, the largest being the Engan, Melpa, and Kuman speakers in the Highlands, each with more than 100,000 speakers. Tweet. 2013. According to the Ethnologue website, there are approximately 6,912 known living languages in the world today. The largest family posited for the Papuan region is the Trans–New Guinea phylum, consisting of the majority of Papuan languages and running mainly along the highlands of New Guinea. Papua New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. I've made it safely to my 134th country - PAPUA NEW GUINEA! Bill Palmer et al. With an average of only 7,000 speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu. The small urban population lives for the most part in towns whose original location was determined either by access to a good harbour for early colonial planters or, in the interior, by the availability of level land sufficient for an airstrip. Agricultural production, most of it from subsistence farming, accounts for about one-third of the country’s gross domestic product. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. There are languages that are spoken by thousands of people while others only have dozens of speakers. When it became independent in 1949, the government of Papua New Guinea chose three languages for official use – English, Tok Pisin (creole) and Hiri Motu (simplified form of the Austronesian language, Motu). - yu orait ? In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the birth rate greatly exceeded the world average, while the death rate was moderately high and falling. There are 840 living languages in Papua New Guinea, although 37 of those are close to extinction What are the islands of the Maldives made of? What is the world’s largest archipelago? Such diversity makes it a linguist's playground! Stephen Wurm stated that the lexical similarities between Great Andamanese and the West Papuan and Timor–Alor families "are quite striking and amount to virtual formal identity [...] in a number of instances". 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