Most of the Scottish planters came from southwest Scotland, but many also came from the unstable regions along the border with England. Carrickfergus was formerly a county of itself, it extended further than the modern borough of Carrickfergus. What are now the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland were formed in 1922. [57], By the 1630s it is suggested that the plantation was settling down with "tacit religious tolerance", and in every county Old Irish were serving as royal officials and members of the Irish Parliament. The principal landowners were to be "Undertakers", wealthy men from England and Scotland who undertook to import tenants from their own estates. A large number of them returned to Scotland as a result. The legacy of the Plantation remains disputed. Each county is divided into a number of baronies, midway between a county and a parish. Six largely rural administrative counties based on these were among the eight primary local government areas of Northern Ireland from its 1921 creation until 1973. Northern Ireland is divided into six former local government divisions called counties, namely: Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone. Richard English has written that, "not all of those of British background in Ireland owe their Irish residence to the Plantations... yet the Plantation did produce a large British/English interest in Ireland, a significant body of Irish Protestants who were tied through religion and politics to English power. Nearly everyone in Northern Ireland speaks English. Later 15th century – Boundaries of counties and lordships (black border) and minor lordships (grey border) in Ulster. Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom, (although it is also described by official sources as a province or a region), situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland.It was created as a separate legal entity on 3 May 1921, under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. [51] Of those Catholics who did convert to Protestantism, many made their choice for social and political reasons. [28] English judges had also declared that titles to land held under gavelkind, the native Irish custom of inheriting land, had no standing under English law. Charles I subsequently raised an army largely composed of Irish Catholics, and sent them to Ulster in preparation to invade Scotland. Marianne Elliott believes that "1641 destroyed the Ulster Plantation as a mixed settlement". Since these former officers did not have enough private capital to fund the colonisation, their involvement was subsidised by the twelve great guilds. Most of his supporters' families had been dispossessed and were likely motivated by the desire to recover their ancestral lands. Plantation towns generally have a single broad main street ending in a square – often known as a "diamond",[48] for example The Diamond, Donegal. But Northern Ireland's native people were Catholic. The mobilised natives turned on the British colonists, massacring about 4000 and expelling about 8,000 more. They were granted around 3000 acres (12 km²) each, on condition that they settle a minimum of 48 adult males (including at least 20 families), who had to be English-speaking and Protestant. In total, during the half century between 1650 and 1700, 100,000 British settlers migrated to Ulster, just over half of which were English. [7] The colonists (or "British tenants")[8][9] were required to be English-speaking, Protestant,[4][10] and loyal to the king. [6] The province was almost wholly Gaelic, Catholic and rural, and had been the region most resistant to English control. The Wars eliminated the last major Catholic landowners in Ulster.[67]. Former counties which formed part of the six modern counties of Northern Ireland: 1. 211,826 = 210,782 county plus 1,044 county borough. [1] The other two local government areas were the urban county boroughs of Derry[n 1] (geographically part of the County of Londonderry) and Belfast (geographically split between the counties of Antrim and Down). It was merged into County Antrimin 1777. About the time the Plantation of Ulster was planned, the Virginia Plantation at Jamestown in 1607 started. The Old Counties of Northern Ireland The Six Historic Counties of Northern Ireland (Ulster) and their armorial bearings or 'Coats of Arms' Select the County you require from the County Arms below and the other Local Authorities within the chosen region will be displayed. King James issued a proclamation declaring their action to be treason, paving the way for the forfeiture of their lands and titles. [6] Between the late 13th and early 14th centuries it was subdivided into multiple shires based around centres of Norman power such as Antrim, Carrickfergus, and Newtownards. Sir, - Ireland is an island surrounded by water. The English and Scottish parliaments then threatened to attack this army. The six counties in Northern Ireland and the 26 counties in the Republic of Ireland make up the 32 counties of the island of Ireland. Their descendants prospered, and their refusal to join the rest of Ireland in accepting Home Rule led to the establishment of the state of Northern Ireland in 1921, consisting of the six Ulster counties of Antrim, Down, Armagh, Londonderry, Tyrone, and Fermanagh (replaced in the early 1970s by 26 local districts). Many British Protestant settlers went to Virginia or New England in America rather than to Ulster. 3. In 1607, the chieftains left Ireland to seek Spanish help for a new rebellion, in the Flight of the Earls. There is a rather convoluted history surrounding this partition. [30], Six counties were involved in the official plantation – Donegal, Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan and Armagh. [2] In 1607 Sir Randall MacDonnell settled 300 Presbyterian Scots families on his land in Antrim. [53] Irish Gaelic writers bewailed the plantation. Ferrell suggests it took many years for an Irish uprising to happen because there was depopulation, because many native leaders had been removed, and those who remained only belatedly realised the threat of the plantation. [21] The wars fought among Gaelic clans and between the Gaelic and English undoubtedly contributed to depopulation.[22]. From 1606 there was substantial lowland Scots settlement on disinhabited land in north Down, led by Hugh Montgomery and James Hamilton. Interesting facts: 1. "[63] He also believed that "Here, if anywhere, the mentality of siege was born, as the warning bonfires blazed from hilltop to hilltop, and the beating drums summoned men to the defence of castles and walled towns crowded with refugees. The second major influence on the Plantation was the negotiation among various interest groups on the British side. These are contiguous with the six administrative counties and two county boroughs, established by the 1898 Local Government Act. [69], Despite the fact that Scottish Presbyterians strongly supported the Williamites in the Williamite war in Ireland in the 1690s, they were excluded from power in the postwar settlement by the Anglican Protestant Ascendancy. The British forces fought an inconclusive war with the Ulster Irish led by Owen Roe O'Neill. In this way, it was hoped that a defensible new community composed entirely of loyal British subjects would be created.[33]. [61] The initial leader of the rebellion, Felim O'Neill, had actually been a beneficiary of the Plantation land grants. By the 1630s, there were 20,000 adult male British settlers in Ulster, which meant that the total settler population could have been as high as 80,000. Counties in Ireland … This often led outsiders to mistakenly believe that the Gaelic Irish were nomadic. [41] However, in a few heavily populated lowland areas (such as parts of north Armagh) it is likely that some population displacement occurred. A. T. Q. Stewart concluded, "The distinctive Ulster-Scottish culture, isolated from the mainstream of Catholic and Gaelic culture, would appear to have been created not by the specific and artificial plantation of the early seventeenth century, but by the continuous natural influx of Scottish settlers both before and after that episode..."[73], The Plantation of Ulster is also widely seen as the origin of mutually antagonistic Catholic/Irish and Protestant/British identities in Ulster. There is more cross breeding in Ulster's history than people imagined. Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom, lying in the northeastern quadrant of the island of Ireland, on the western continental periphery often characterized as Atlantic Europe. Former counties which formed part of the six modern counties of Northern Ireland: Former principal local government divisions of Northern Ireland, The county and city/county borough officially named, Antrim and Down areas are calculated by combining the administrative county areas. Moreover, the unofficial settlements in Antrim and Down were thriving. Before the Flight of the Earls, the English administration had sought to minimize the personal estates of the chieftains, but now they treated the chieftains as sole owners of their whole territories, so that all the land could be confiscated. According to one interpretation, it created a society segregated between native Catholics and settler Protestants in Ulster and created a Protestant and British concentration in north east Ireland. In the two officially unplanted counties of Antrim and Down, substantial Presbyterian Scots settlement had been underway since 1606.

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